The coffee roasting process and our approach to it varies almost very quarter. As we gain more and more experience. Since at Quaffee™ we roast each batch in a very hands-on manner, our experience changes the subtleties of our roasting. That said our basic roasting knowledge is based on we received direct from Steven Diedrich (inventor of the Diedrich roaster). Then our own personal experience with our coffees we source allows us to develop each profile.
Notes about our philosophy to roasting
Although what follows is a general description of the coffee roasting process, it is important to note the actual roasting process followed is part of our and in fact most roasters uniqueness. Each roaster who is passionate about the end results will have their one unique belief about roasting. Driven by the market they serve, the beans they source and their personal tastes.
About our Diedrichs
All fine food and drink are affected by how they are prepared. Accordingly this is why we ensure we have all our beans are roasted to a profile that is carefully identified. We use what we consider to be one of the finest roasters (a Diedrich IR-12 and IR-2.5) that uses only in clear hot air. The roaster uses a ceramic plate that is heated in a contained system, so that only clean infrared heated air is radiated into the roasting barrel.
Roast progresses at a controlled pace, ensuring that the roast level we believe have identified as the most scrumptious is reached. Then the beans are emptied into an air cooling bin, and the roast is arrested. Finally we allow the beans to cool in the cooling bin naturally.
A rough guide to roasting
All the roast colours
Coffee roasting goes through a number of phases. Although there are many phases there are some that are more obvious to identify, and control. We look at the roast process as containing the following phases:
- Charge and turning point phase
- Initial drying phase or start of endothermic
- Final drying phase and start of maillard stage
- Yellowing phase to brown
- Exothermic Phase
- 1st crack
- 2nd crack
There are many other roasters that may dispute these stages, and perhaps may expand this list or more likely reduce it to probably 4 stages: charge, yellow browning 1st and 2nd crack.
Charge and turning point phase
The charge temperature is the temperature you start the roast, or charge the beans at, the turning point temperature, is the lowest temperature that the beans reach.
Determine charge temperature
The most important thing about this stage is that you need to decide on your charge temperature. To determine your charge temperature you need to consider the following:
- Ambient Temperature and Humidity. The rule of thumb here is that the lower the ambient temperature and the higher the humidity the higher your charge temperature is.
- Quantity of coffee being roasted in relation to the maximum load of the roaster. The smaller the load the lower the charge temperature. Typically a fuller load should have a charge temperature about.
- How your particular roaster reacts when the coffee is introduced to the roaster, this comes from experience.
- Coffee you are roasting, the higher grown the harder the bean and the higher the charge temperature, low grown softer coffees you can reduce the charge temperature.
Determining when to add flame
Once the roasting process has started you need to look at when you introduce flame to the green, if at all. Once again there are factors that determine this:
- The desired roast profile (when do you want the Maillard reaction to start).
- What is your target for the bump temperature/time, kick, first crack, second crack and dump temperature/time.
- The load dropped into the roaster as a percentage of the maximum load, the lower the load the lower the flame normally. For very low loads you may not even need flame.
Typically turning point temperature is normally at around 1 minute 30 seconds. From then you need to look at ramp or change of temperature as a guide.
Note: to accentuate the bright citrus flavours that can exist in some coffees introduction of flame early typically pronounces this.
Initial drying phase or start of endothermic
This part of the roast is from the turning point to what we call the bump temperature. A general rule of thumb is that for low land grown coffees there is no bump temperature but for shade and highland grown coffee there a dump temperature seems to better expose the subtle aromas and flavours.
Coffee starting stage
During this phase you want to look for the following:
- Temperature the turning point started (between 150 and 180°F or 65 to 80°C is best);
- For highland and shade grown coffees: the change in temperature should peak at between 30 and 40°F (15 to 20 ° C) per minute and to do so before;
- For the lowland grown coffees or for coffees that you find that the subtle flavours are destroyed by the bump, the change in temperature should hover below 20°F (10°C)
- The dump typically is complete at between 220 and 240°F (105 and 115°C) so that the bump happens then.
The bump is where the ramp temperature drops off a bit so that you can start the final drying stage of the coffee, and control the mallard reaction in a more acute manner.
Final drying phase and start of Maillard stage
Coffee drying stage
After 240°F or 116°C until the yellow browning stage, you should be targeting a change in temp (or ramp) to be as consistent as possible. This allows for better control of the Maillard reaction, which will convert the sugars to caramels ensuring the coffee evenly brown and prevent tipping and scorching.
During this stage the temperature ramp should be what was determined optimal for the roast profile that you identified for the coffee taste preferred. Sweeter coffees have a higher ramp here (but not too high), and more savoury coffee prefers a slower ramp.
During this stage your change in temperature should be no higher than 40°F (about 22°C) per minute or lower than 12°F (about 6°C). Since too high and flavours are burnt off, and you get spotting on the coffee bean and too low and the coffee flavour does not fully develop and becomes baked. Consequently you see the coffee beans changing colour (this is around 320°F or 160°C)
Yellowing phase to brown and start of Exothermic
Yellow browning stage
It is during this phase that the flavours start to develop, so it is important to sustain your ramp or change in temperature to a consistent level, so that from yellow browning to by around 370 °F (188 °C) you can kick start the exothermic phase and get into 1st crack using the coffee’s exothermic energy that it has built up as part of the roast.
So in this stage it is important to control the flame so that the change in temperature is within 1 and 2 °F or °C of the last change. So if you want a change in temperature of say 18 °F per minute, you must control the flame so that the change in temperature is as close to 18 °F per minute for the time you spend in this stage. Or as close to that as possible as you can.
At between 330 °F (or 166 °C) and 370 °F (or 180 °C) you should change your air flow to full, for two reasons:
- For full flavours development and getting the coffee to properly start the Exothermic stage,
- To get as much chaff off as possible off the coffee and through the system.
As the temperature rises in this stage the coffee will become caramel in colour and start browning, check for how the bean is developing using the roasted coffee sampler. Parts of the bean will start expanding while others will look a little wrinkled, but as it gets to first crack these wrinkles should start disappearing. Using the test scoop to test this is recommended, especially when learning how to roast.
At first crack
At between 370 °F (or 188 °C) and 400 °F (or 205 °C) First crack starts and will continue, until all the beans have gone through this stage. In this stage the gasses and water in the bean are forced to the surface and escape with a POP noise like you hear with Pop corn. The stage starts slowly like what happens with popcorn (the process is similar) and then as more and more of the beans go through this stage there is a symphony of first cracks, then there is a settling as the last ones go through the process.
The methodology of flame control in this stage depends on the profile you have found works best for your tastes. Some people drop the flame to half or even no flame to extend this phase. Some people may even drop the coffee at this point making it like a Scandinavian roast.
That said we believe this is the sight and sound stage of coffee development, we would recommend sampling the coffee regularly and paying attention to temperature becomes secondary look at the colour the development and the aroma that is coming of the bean. If you find the coffee is struggling to get to the end of first crack it may mean that the exothermic reaction has stalled and needs a push.
But pay attention at this point.
img src=”http://quaffee.com/images/coffee/RoastingCoffee2ndCrackStage.jpg” alt=”Roasting Coffee 2nd Crack Stage” width=”140″ height=”150″ />
At second crack
If you have not dumped the coffee then the next stage is second crack. After first crack for about 6 °F (or 3 °C) the coffee gets ready for the next crack.
It is at this stage that normally we recommend dumping most coffees. Thus ensuring flavour remains intact and not affected by the burning of the caramelised sugars. This would be the result of extending the Maillard stage. As second crack starts, decide how far in you want to extend the roast. The further you go into second crack the more the coffee gets charred. As the coffee goes further into second crack the sugar browning stage starts entering its final stage. Coffee is not dumped at this point, will enter into a dry distillation stage. In this state more medicinal flavours are exposed. Taking the coffee too far will cause it to catch alight – FIRE.
Dump (or Drop)
As soon as you have determined that development and colour of the coffee to be to your liking dump then the coffee in to the cooling bin. Set flame to pilot, air flow through the cooling bin.
At this point agitation of the coffee helps the remaining chaff and smoke to be drawn through the cooling bin. However agitation will delay the arresting of the exothermic reaction. Once all the heat of the coffee has been dissipated, inspect the beans for any beans with defects or beans that have not become full developed. Also look for stone or other strange objects at this point.
More on coffee roasting
There are many other places to read up about roasting, and creating profiles, here is some further reading: